Desktop Reference Library

BU/Divisional Subject Index

Business Unit / Divisional
GLOSSARY


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BU/DIV-GLOSSARY

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2.

Where definitions have been extracted from specific available references, the reference name(s) are given within {}. Definitions showing no reference names have been written by the author. (See Important Note near the bottom of this page.)

3.

Information "added" by the author (see document information below) is also enclosed within {}.

4.

For guides on how to add definitions to this glossary (if you have access to the source), see the definition templates and sample definitions near the bottom of this document.

 

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A

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Application

1.

[Computers] The term application is a shorter form of application program, which is a program designed to perform a specific function directly for the user or, in some cases, for another application program. Examples of applications include word processors, database programs, Web browsers, software development tools, drawing, paint, image editing programs, and communication programs.

{From the whatis.com dictionary on the Internet.}

2.

[Computers] A user program such as Microsoft Word, Microsoft Access, Netscape Communicator, etc.

{From Karboís Dictionary on the Internet, with adjustments by the Editor.}

3.

[Computers] A collection of software components used to perform specific types of user-oriented work on a computer.
(The IBM Dictionary of Computing)

4.

[Computers] The use to which an information processing system is put; for example, a payroll application, an airline reservation application, a network application.
(The IBM Dictionary of Computing)

 

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Batch

 

[Also Batch Job] In a computer, a batch job is a program that is assigned to the computer to run without further user interaction. An example of batch jobs in a PC would be a printing request {that continues to run while the user does something else}. In larger commercial computers or servers, batch jobs are usually initiated by a system user. Some are defined to run automatically at a certain time.

In some computer systems, batch jobs are said to run in the "background" and interactive (online) programs run in the "foreground". In general, interactive programs are given priority over batch programs, which run during the time intervals when the interactive programs are waiting for user requests.

The term originated when punched cards were the usual form of computer input and you put a batch of cards (one batch per program) in a box in the sequence that they were to be fed into the computer by the computer operator. (Hopefully, you got the output back the next morning!)

{From the whatis.com dictionary on the Internet.}

Browser

 

[Computers] A browser is a {computer} program that allows you to view and interact with various kinds of Internet resources available on the World Wide Web. A browser is commonly called a web browser. {From Learn The Net on the Internet.}

{Editorís Note: Browsers such as Netscape Navigator and Microsoftís Internet Explorer, may also be used to access non-internet resources (documents, files, etc.), such as those found on an intranet or some other private computer network, or even on oneís own computer.

For example, you are using a browser now to look at this {Business Unit / Divisional} Glossary, which is a company-private document and therefore not on the Internet.}

 

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Client

 

[Computers.] the end user side of the client/server arrangement, the term "client" typically refers to a {user} of network services of one kind or another. {See also server.}
{From the St. Croix Medical dictionary
via the One-Look Multiple-Subject Dictionary Service on the Internet.}

Client/Server

 

[Computers.] A model for computing that divides computing into two separate roles, usually connected by a network: the client works on the end-user's side of the connection, and manages user interaction and display (input and output, and related processing), while the server works elsewhere on the network and manages data-intensive or shared processing activities, like "serving up" {providing copies of} documents and programs.
{From the St. Croix Medical dictionary via
the One-Look Multiple-Subject Dictionary Service on the Internet.}

COBOL

 

{Acronym for "Common Business Oriented Language".}

A computer programming language based on English words and phrases.
{Originally designed and used in the 1960ís, it is still in use today.}

{From Dictionary.com on the Internet, with notes by the Editor.}

Computer Program

 

{See software.}

Coupon

 

The contractual rate of interest on a credit instrument. See also Yield.
{From Barkley's Comprehensive Financial Glossary on the Internet.}

 

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Database

1.

A large collection of data organized for rapid search and retrieval.
{From Computer User Hi-Tech Dictionary on the Internet.}

2.

A program that manages data, and can be used to store, retrieve, and sort information. Some database programs are Lotus Approach, Microsoft Access, Filemaker, and dBASE.
{From Computer User Hi-Tech Dictionary on the Internet.}

Database Administrator

1.

(Acronym DBA) This is a person whose job it is to manage databases. A DBA's tasks may {but not always} include assigning security privileges to the databases, creating and designing databases, and controlling the importing and exporting of data between databases and external sources. The creation and design of databases is a science. You can increase or decrease performance greatly by designing a database properly or improperly. {From Geek.com Technical Dictionary on the Internet.}

2.

In terms of the Legacy Computer System, those Information Technology personnel who perform the above tasks for the databases on the mainframe system and other related computer systems at {Business Unit}.

Document

 

[Computers. See also file.]

1.

In the PC world, a file created with a word processor. In addition to text, documents can contain graphics, charts, and other objects. Increasingly, the line separating word processing files from files produced by other applications {computer programs} is becoming blurred. A word processing application can produce graphics and a graphics application can produce words. This trend is accelerating with new technologies that allow an application to combine many components. Consequently, the term document is used more and more to describe any file produced by an application {usually with special formatting included in addition to whatever basic information the file contains}. {From the Webopedia dictionary on the Internet.}

2.

When used in reference to the World Wide Web, a document is any file containing text, media or {links} that can be transferred from a server to a client program.
{From the Net Lingo dictionary on the Internet.}

 

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File

 

[Computers] A collection of data or information that has a name, called the filename. Almost all information stored in a computer must be in a file. Different types of files store different types of information. For example, program files store {computer} programs, whereas text files store text. {From the Webopedia dictionary on the Internet.}

File Server

 

A computer that stores files for access by other computers. {See also server.}
{From Computer User Hi-Tech Dictionary on the Internet.}

 

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Home Page

 

[Computers] The first web page one encounters when accessing a web site or any other type of computer-based library or knowledge base where information may be retrieved online using a browser.

Host Computer

1.

A computer connected to a network, that provides data and services to other computers.
{From Computer User Hi-Tech Dictionary on the Internet.}

2.

A multi-user computer that has terminals attached to it.
{From Computer User Hi-Tech Dictionary on the Internet.}

   

Hypertext

 

[Computers and the Internet.] A way of presenting information in which text, sounds, images, and actions are linked together in a way that allows you to "jump" around between them in whatever order you choose.
{From Learn The Net on the Internet.}

{Editorís Note: As an example, when you click on links while browsing this {Business Unit / Divisional} Glossary, you are making use of hypertext.}

 

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Internet

 

[As in "The Internet", with a capital "I".]

1.

The large system of connected computers around the world which people use to communicate with each other. "I learned about it on the Internet."
{From Cambridge Dictionaries Online on the Internet.}

2.

A world-wide network of computers linked by telephone lines, allowing for the global dissemination of information. {From the Travel Industry Dictionary on the Internet.}

3.

The Internet is a super-network. It connects many smaller {computer} networks together and allows all the computers to exchange information with each other.
{See also World Wide Web.}
{From the wings.ucdavis.edu glossary on the Internet.}

Intranet

1.

A privately maintained computer network that can be accessed only by authorized persons, especially members or employees of the organization that owns it.
{From dictionary.com on the Internet.}

2.

A play on the word Internet, an "intranet" is a restricted-access network that works like the Web, but isn't on it. Usually owned and managed by a corporation, an intranet enables a company to share its resources with its employees without confidential information being made available to everyone with Internet access.
{From the CNET Glossary on the Internet}

 

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Knowledge Base

1.

[n] the content of a particular domain or field of knowledge [synonym: knowledge domain]
{From Dictionary.com on the Internet, original source WordNet ® 1.6, © 1997 Princeton University.}

2.

The data, knowledge and rules used by experts to solve problems.

Also: The {computer programming} that manages the knowledge base {when the information is stored on a computer for retrieval by people and/or other computer programs}.

{From the Management and Technology Dictionary on the Internet, with Editor adjustment.}

 

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LAN

 

Acronym for Local Area Network.

Legacy System

1.

An information system that has been in use for a long time, usually on a mainframe or minicomputer. {From Computer User Hi-Tech Dictionary on the Internet.}

2.

Article from Computerworld on the Internet entitled "Legacy System".

3.

In the context of {Business Unit / Division}, the "Legacy System" refers to all computer programs that reside on our mainframe system. This software is supported and maintained by the {legacy} Applications Development and Support group under IT.

The {Business Unit / Division} Legacy System is comprised of batch jobs and online (screen) applications that support the {core} functions of {Business Unit / Division}, and includes the {list of applications}, and other related software running on the mainframe system.

{Editor's definition compiled from interviews of IT Applications Development staff.}

4.

Technically, the term "Legacy System" could also be extended to any non-mainframe applications that (a) have been in existence and in use "for a long time" (such as some of our Unix platform applications), and/or (b) those applications that depend upon direct links to the mainframe applications, such as the {front-end system}, which is run in Windows directly from oneís workstation, yet receives its display information from databases that still reside on the mainframe that services {Business Unit / Division}.

{Editor's definition compiled from interviews of IT Applications Development staff.}

Link

 

[Computers and Library Services] A link generally refers to any highlighted words or phrases in a {specially formatted} document that allow you to jump to (a) another section of the same document, or (b) to another document {either within the same computer or library service you are browsing through, or on some other computer or library service entirely}. {From Learn The Net on the Internet. Adjustment by Editor.}

Local Area Network (LAN)

 

A network that connects computers that are close to each other, usually in the same building, linked by a cable. {From Computer User Hi-Tech Dictionary on the Internet.}

 

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Mainframe

 

A very large and expensive computer capable of supporting hundreds, or even thousands, of users simultaneously. In the hierarchy that starts with a simple microprocessor (in watches, for example) at the bottom and moves to supercomputers at the top, mainframes are just below supercomputers. In some ways, mainframes are more powerful than supercomputers because they support more simultaneous programs. But supercomputers can execute a single program faster than a mainframe. The distinction between small mainframes and minicomputers is vague, depending really on how the manufacturer wants to market its machines. Unisys and IBM are the largest manufacturers of mainframes.
{From the Webopedia dictionary on the Internet.}

Microcomputer

 

A complete computer on a smaller scale and is generally a synonym for the more common term, personal computer or PC, a computer designed for an individual.
{From the whatis.com dictionary on the Internet.}

Minicomputer

 

A term (not used much today), which describes a computer of a size intermediate between a microcomputer and a mainframe. Typically, minicomputers have been stand-alone computers, (operating independently with attached terminals and other devices) sold to small and mid-size businesses for general business applications and to large enterprises for department-level operations.

In recent years, the minicomputer has evolved into the "mid-range server" and is part of a network. IBM's AS/400e is a good example.
{Edited from original definition on the whatis.com dictionary on the Internet.}

 

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Online

1.

[Computers] Pertaining to a userís ability to interact with a computer.
(The IBM Dictionary of Computing)

{Editorís Example: User access via interactive online screen applications.

2.

[Computers] Pertaining to a userís access to a computer via a terminal.
(The IBM Dictionary of Computing)

3.

[Computers] Pertaining to the operation of a functional unit {such as a printer} when under the direct control of a computer.
(The IBM Dictionary of Computing)

4.

[Computers] Controlled by, or communicating with, a computer.
(The IBM Dictionary of Computing)

5.

[Computers] Directly connected with a computer.
{ From the Ardes2K Technical Dictionary on the Internet.}

6.

[Computers] In data communications, connected with another distant computer, i.e., successful connection with a host computer in a client/server network.
{ From the Ardes2K Technical Dictionary on the Internet.}

 

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PC

 

[Computers] Personal Computer.

Personal Computer

 

See microcomputer.

 

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Server

1.

A computer on which files and data are stored for retrieval by other computers.
{From the Travel Industry Dictionary on the Internet.}

2.

A host computer on a network that holds information and responds to requests for information from it.

The term server is also used to refer to {any of the computer programs} that make the act of serving {copying and sending} information possible.

{From the Netlingo Online Dictionary on the Internet, with adjustments by the Editor.}

3.

A {computer} program which provides some service to other {computer} programs.
{From the Free On-Line Dictionary of Computing on the Internet.}

{See also file server, host computer, client, and client/server.}

Software

1.

A {computer} file or files containing instructions that tell a computer what to do.

{From the K-8 Aeronautics Internet Tutorial Glossary on the Internet.}

2.

The instructions executed by a computer, as opposed to the physical device (s) on which they run (the "hardware").

{Used interchangeably with "computer programs" or just "programs" on computers.}

{From the Free Online Dictionary of Computing on the Internet, with Editorís note.}

 

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Terminal

1.

{Computers} A device that enables you to communicate with a computer. Generally, a terminal is a combination of keyboard and display screen {only -- no computer box}.
{From the Webopedia dictionary on the Internet.}

{Editor's Note: These devices are sometimes referred to as "green screens" because the older types of equipment produced images with single color characters in green (sometimes blue or white) with a black background.}

2.

{Computers} A device, usually equipped with a keyboard and display device, capable of sending and receiving information. Note: The terms "terminal" and "workstation" are often used interchangeably. (The IBM Dictionary of Computing)

3.

In {computer} networking, a terminal is a personal computer or workstation connected to a mainframe {or other type of powerful computer system}. The personal computer usually runs "terminal emulation" software that makes the mainframe think it is like any other mainframe terminal.

{From the Webopedia dictionary on the Internet.}

{Editorís Note: At {Business Unit / Division}, we use a program called "Accessory Manager" that runs in Windows on our personal computer workstations. The purpose of this program is to allow our pc to communicate with our mainframe computer by "emulating" the older type of "green screen" terminal that the mainframe computer was originally designed to communicate with.}

 

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Unix

 

Note: Unix and UNIX are both correct and mean the same -- UNIX is not an acronym.

 

A computer operating system (the basic software running on a computer, underneath things like word processors and spreadsheets). UNIX is designed to be used by many people at the same time (it is "multi-user"). It is the most common operating system for servers on the Internet {but it is also used for other multi-user computer environments}. {From the Butterfly Glossary on the Internet.}

URL

 

[Computers.] An acronym for Uniform Resource Locator, a URL is the address for a resource or site on the World Wide Web and the convention that web browsers use for locating files and other remote services. {From Learn The Net on the Internet.}

{Editorís Note: Browsers such as Netscape Navigator and Microsoftís Internet Explorer, may also be used to access non-Internet resources (documents, files, etc.), such as those found on an intranet or some other private computer network, or even on oneís own computer.

For example, you are using a browser now to look at this {Business Unit / Divisional} Glossary, which is a company-private document and therefore not on the Internet.

If you look up near the top of your display screen, in a rectangular box entitled "Location" or "URL" or some similar label, you will see displayed the "local" URL of this Glossary.}

 

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WAN

 

Acronym for Wide Area Network.

Wash

1.

A situation in which two actions cancel each other out.
{From "Investor-Words" Internet Glossary.}

2.

Gains equal losses.
{From "Yahoo! Finance" Internet Glossary.}

Web (or "The Web")

 

See World Wide Web.

Web Browser

 

See browser.

Web Page

 

[Applies to computers, specifically to the Internet, a "local" intranet, or to any type of computer-based library or knowledge base where information may be retrieved online using a browser.]

A web page is a {specially formatted document} that is part of a group of hypertext documents or resources available on the World Wide Web. Collectively, these documents and resources form what is known as a web site.

You can read {such} documents that reside somewhere on the world wide web via the Internet, or on your own computer with a {computer} program called a web browser. Web browsers read {such} documents and display them on a computer screen as formatted presentations, with any associated graphics, sound, and video.

Web pages can contain hypertext links to other places within the same document, to other documents at the same web site, or to documents at other web sites. They can also contain fill-in forms, photos, large clickable images, sounds, and videos for {copying to oneís local computer or computer network}.
.
{From Learn The Net on the Internet.}

{Editorís Note: "Local" documents (not stored on the world wide web) can also be accessed in the same manner as web pages, provided they are formatted as described above. As of this writing, there seems to be no standard name for such documents. Perhaps "web-type" documents might suit, as long as the writer makes it clear that the resources being referred to are not stored for access on the world wide web via the internet, but instead are "local" and private. This would include, of course, "web type" documents stored on an intranet..

Web Site

1.

A site (location) on the World Wide Web. Each Web site contains a home page, which is the first document users see when they enter the site. The site might also contain additional documents and files. Each site is owned and managed by an individual, company or organization. {From the Webopedia dictionary on the Internet.}

2.

A Web server that provides 24-hour access to one or more inter-linked "pages" (documents or files), which collectively represent the presence of an organization, company, individual, or {a body of} work on the World Wide Web. The main page or welcome page is known as the home page. Also spelled Website.
{From the Online Dictionary of Library and Information Science on the Internet.}

3.

A set of interconnected Web pages {documents or files}, usually including a home page {see above}, generally located on the same server, and prepared and maintained as a collection of information by a person, group, or organization.
{From Dictionary.Com on the Internet.}

Wide Area Network (WAN)

 

A network in which computers are connected to each other over a long distance, using telephone lines and satellite communications. See also local area network (LAN).
{From Computer User Hi-Tech Dictionary on the Internet.}

Workstation

1.

A terminal or personal computer where one person works.
{From Computer User Hi-Tech Dictionary on the Internet.}

2.

A terminal in a network, which may have its own processing capability.
{From Computer User Hi-Tech Dictionary on the Internet.}

World Wide Web

1.

The service of the Internet that allows jumping to information sources all over the world by simply pointing a mouse and clicking on "links" to them. Such "linked" information documents may include not only text, but also graphics, animation, and sound. If you are {using} this Glossary, then you already know how links work {except this glossary is internal to our company, and not accessible outside of the company}.

Most people just refer to the world wide web as "the Web", or sometimes they use the abbreviations WWW {or www} or W3. {See also intranet.}

{From the Hyper-Glossary on the Internet, with some wording adjustments by the Editor.}

2.

A system of Internet servers that support specially formatted documents. These documents {are setup in a special way to provide} links to other documents, graphics, audio, or video files. This means you can jump from one document to another simply by clicking on "hot spots" {highlighted text containing links}.

Not all Internet servers are part of the World Wide Web.

There are several applications (programs), called "Web browsers", that make it easy to access the World Wide Web, two of the most popular being Netscape Navigator and Microsoft's Internet Explorer.

{From the Webopedia dictionary on the Internet, with adjustments by the Editor.}

{Note: To "browse" a document is to display it on your screen, and to be able to move around throughout the document, usually without the ability to change the content.}

è

{Editorís Note: The phrase "web-based" generally refers to information or programming that can be found on the world wide web.}

 

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Yield

1.

The rate of return on an asset. It is frequently expressed as a percent of the current market price {of the asset}.
{From Barkley's Comprehensive Financial Glossary on the Internet.}

2.

The interest earned by an investor on his or her investment (or bank on the money it has lent). Also called Return {On Investment}.
{From D & J Real Estate Dictionary on the Internet.}

 

See also Return On Investment.

 

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Additional Links

Instructions:

1.

Find definitions by:
(a) using Edit/Find (via menus or typing Ctrl F) to "search" text, or
(b) left-clicking on alphabetic LINKS then scrolling through that group of definitions.

2.

Where definitions have been extracted from specific available references, the reference name(s) are given within {}. Definitions showing no reference names have been written by the author. (See Important Note near the bottom of this page.)

3.

Information "added" by the author (see document information below) is also enclosed within {}.

4.

For guides on how to add definitions to this glossary (if you have access to the source), see the definition templates and sample definitions near the bottom of this document.

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It is always preferable to have glossary definitions quoted from actual written references, internal or external. If the reader sees an author-written definition, and knows of a more suitable definition from an actual written reference, then it would be strongly appreciated that the reader contact the author and brief him/her about such a reference.

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